Cannabis is a diverse plant that has three main subspecies. These include cannabis Indica, cannabis Sativa, and cannabis Ruderalis. Sativa and Indica are commonly used cannabis types, whereas ruderalis is comparatively less explored because its cultivation rate is low.
In this article, we will be discussing all of these three types of cannabis, covering various aspects for example its morphology, and the positive and negative effects that its usage results in.
This article explains the traditional concept of Indica, Sativa and Ruderalis. On a scientific level this categorisation is disputed, yet from a morphological and consumer point-of-view these categories make sense and are widely used, especially to simplify this complex plant. Yet, due to increased hybridisation and properties generally applicable to most Cannabis plants, take them with a grain of salt.
1. Cannabis Indica:
What is Cannabis Indica?
Cannabis Indica is mainly a stout and broad-leafed plant that is well-known for its property of producing relaxing as well as sedative effects. Indica is also commonly associated with producing a couch-lock effect. It has its origins in Central Asia, but today it is being grown in various parts of the world. This cannabis type has its THC to CBD ratio quite close to 1:1 and has a higher CBD content as compared to other types such as cannabis Sativa. It is also for this reason that these Indica strains are considered to be ideal for fulfilling medicinal needs.
Its growth cycle features 4 main stages that include germination that normally takes up to 7 days, a seedling that lasts for a few weeks, vegetation that requires 2-8 weeks, and flowering that can extend from 8 to 12 weeks.
What are its physical features?
It is very easy to spot cannabis Indica as it has some distinct physical features, You can clearly spot cannabis indica by its physical characteristics. Its strains are quite short and stocky, and it has chunky leaves and bushy greenery. It is also very common for these plants to grow to be very wide and broad. This plant is also quite fast-growing and produces an excess number of buds.
What are its positive effects?
- It produces a quite intense relaxing effect which is a major reason behind its popularity
- It is ideal for regulating appetite, reducing pain as well as treating nausea
- Suitable for usage at night as it helps with sleep
What are its negative effects?
While cannabis Indica is generally considered to have a much better safety profile as compared to tobacco, excessive usage, especially from a young age, can lead to several long-term effects.
- Smoking it for a long time can cause several chest and throat problems that include lung irritation and throat pain.
- Increased risk of falling prey to psychiatric problems
- If you are under medication, this cannabis can interact with certain drugs, which can result in an increase or decrease in the drugs dosage effects
The 5 main Indica strains:
1. Ice Cream Cake
It is among highly popular Indica strains that is well known for its flavor and sweet scent. It also has to offer the strongest effects in terms of causing sleep and is a very strong sedative that causes the mind and body to be completely relaxed. Ice Cream Cake is generally used by patients who suffer frequently from anxiety, pain, and insomnia to help improve wellness in health.
2. Purple Punch
Purple Punch is famous for producing significant highs, but it has to offer great relaxing effects. It has the flavor and aroma of grape candy and a hint of blueberry muffins, and is the breeding combination of Larry OG with Granddaddy Purple. It helps with sleeplessness, stress, nausea, and body aches.
3. Northern Light
This is the favorite Indica strain among cannabis growers globally and has an earthy flavor to it along with a twist of sweetness and spice. It can help manage symptoms such as stress, depression, insomnia, and pain.
4. Hindu Kush/ Hindi Kush
This one has its name after the mountain ranges that lie between Pakistan and Afghanistan and has a thick protective coat that is made of crystal trichomes. Like other strains, this one also has an earthy and sweet flavor to it and helps produce a feel of calmness and relaxation.
5. Granddaddy Purple
This strain of cannabis has a grape flavor to it and is responsible for providing physical relaxation as well as cerebral euphoria. It is considered to be ideal for dealing with a variety of different health conditions that include muscle spasms, appetite loss, and stress.
2. Cannabis Sativa
What is Cannabis Sativa?
Cannabis sativa is a herbaceous species that has its origins in Central Asia. It has been used commonly in folk medicine, and as a source of textile fiber. This fast-growing plant is a rich source of cellulosic and woody fibers and is of high-interest value in the pharmaceutical and construction sectors. Sativa’s metabolites reflect potent bioactivities on human health, and its stem tissues are commonly used to make bioplastics. Like most other species of Cannabis, Sativa’s growth process also comprises 4 main stages: germination, seedling, vegetation, and flowering.
What are its physical features?
Sativa plants normally have narrow leaves and can be very tall with long growing cycles. Their light green color and large leaf size make them easy to distinguish from among the rest.
- Helps elevate mood
- Results in increased energy levels
- Assists in combating depression
- Regulates appetite
- Dryness in the mouth
Some common Sativa Strains:
- Jack Herer
- Durban Poison
- Colombian Gold
- Super Silver Haze
- Panama Red
3. Cannabis Ruderalis
What is Cannabis Ruderalis?
Cannabis ruderalis is a subspecies of cannabis that is well known for its ability to grow in extreme conditions. It has its origin in Asia and the Central/ Eastern parts of Europe. Ruderalis seeds are incredibly strong and are not damaged even after they’ve been cracked open. They can detach from the plant and can survive in the dormant state, frozen underground until the environmental conditions become favorable for their growth.
Ruderalis is the lowest THC producing biotypes of Cannabis, due to which it is generally not used for recreational purposes.
What are the physical features of Cannabis Ruderalis?
Cannabis Ruderalis is generally 1.5 to 2 feet tall. They grow very few side branches, especially as compared to the other types, namely Sativa or Indica.
Ruderalis varieties are generally used to obtain flower produce faster. It can also help with a range of conditions like fixing stomach issues and is great for patients undergoing chemotherapy with similar qualities like Indica/Sativa, just in a shorter amount of time. People who have gastronomic issues can also use it for their benefit, as cannabis can jump-start hunger as well as ease-out stomach pains. Moreover, people suffering from excessive vomiting and diarrhea can use it to find relief.
Nowadays, patients from all around the world are able to obtain high-quality herbal remedy, much quicker than ever before. Thanks to the quick lifecycle of Ruderalis Cannabis cultivars, which makes it possible to harvest after 9-13 weeks. These new autoflowering varieties are a true game changer for the international cannabis sector.
Ruderalis is generally considered to be safe for consumption and does not have many side effects. However, long term use can result in dizziness in some consumers.
Guest Author: Mubashir Moqeem